Livro Fundamentos de – Free ebook download as PDF File . pdf) or read book online for free. Livro Fundamentos de Ecologia-Odum – Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. Esta quinta edição de Fundamentos de Ecologia mantém a abordagem holística clássica da ciência ecológica encontrada nas versões anteriores do livro.
|Published (Last):||23 August 2013|
|PDF File Size:||11.78 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||20.2 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
This was one of the first projects to explore the now widespread approach of using wetlands librro water quality improvement ecosystems. Odum viewed humans as playing a central role: Odum continued this work for 26 years until his retirement in He claimed that energy was driven through ecological systems by an “ecoforce” analogous to the role of voltage in electrical circuits.
This approach represented the migration of cybernetic ideas into ecology and led to the formulation of systems ecology. The difference between input and output, under steady state conditions, was a measure of the metabolism of ecolkgia whole system.
One needs a diode to allow biomass to accumulate after the voltage of the sun has gone down. This extension relied on the definition of an entity as a combination of properties that have libgo stability with time.
Howard Odum – Wikipedia
InHoward earned his Ph. Ecological economics is now an active field between economics and ecology with annual conferences, international societies and an international journal. He classified water bodies based ecologa their P-R ratios, this separated autotrophic from heterotrophic ecosystems: Silver Springs is a common type of spring-fed stream in Floridawith a constant temperature and chemical composition.
Society for General Systems Research Presidents. Systems theory in anthropology Systems theory in archaeology Systems theory in political science. For example, what is a diode in nature?
Howard T. Odum
As soon as it does the system fits the definition of an entity. Howard ecollgia the chapter on energeticswhich introduced his energy circuit language.
Chapel Hill, North CarolinaU. Much interesting ecological economics work grew from Odum’s life support calculations.
Howard T. Odum – Wikipedia
In a controversial move, Odum, together with Richard Pinkerton at the time physicist at the University of Floridawas motivated by Alfred J. Odum used an analog of electrical energy networks to model the energy flow pathways of ecosystems. Odum was involved to a greater or lesser extent in the first calculation of the value of an ecosystem service in !
Kangas and his student, David Blersch, made significant contributions to the design of the waste water recycling system on the station. This was the professional society that earlier was named the International Society for General Systems Research. Recently Raphael Valyi coded a java tool which aims in part ecoogia provide a globalised facility ecologiia collaborative diagraming, and simulating of systems using Odum’s energy systems language.
Ecological engineering, he wrote, is “those cases where the energy supplied by man is small relative to the natural sources but sufficient to produce large effects in the resulting patterns and processes. However the concept is neither free from controversy nor without its critics. Odum [was] a genius and an integrative genius seldom books petty constraints.
Ecological Engineering is an emerging field of study between kdum and engineering concerned with the designing, monitoring and constructing of ecosystems. Odum was measuring the community as a system, not adding up the metabolism of the components as Lindeman and many others had done”.
Odum looked at natural systems as having been formed by the use of various forms of energy in the past: They continued to collaborate in research as well as writing for the rest of their lives. An Introduction to Systems Ecology International Society for the Systems Sciences Presidents. Thus a lot of his ideas that seemed so improbable in the past are considered common knowledge now.
Work done at these institutions continues to evolve and propagate the Odum’s concept of emergy. In this way he was able to establish the stream’s energy budget”. Odum started with an overall model and in his early work used a diagramming methodology very similar to the Sankey diagrams used in chemical process engineering.
Lotka ‘s articles on the energetics of evolution, and subsequently proposed the theory that natural systems tend to operate at an efficiency that eclogia the maximum power output, not the maximum efficiency.
Gainesville, FloridaU. For the American sociologist, see Howard W. He was supported by large contracts with the United States Atomic Energy Commissionresulting in participation by nearly scientists, who conducted radiation studies of a tropical rainforest  His featured project at Ecologgia of Florida in the s was on recycling treated sewage into cypress swamps.
Odum in ; she had four children from her previous marriage. It presented a cogent argument for the limits of industrial growth. Odum believed that this language could be applied to any system: By the end of the s Odum’s electronic circuit ecological simulation models were replaced by a more general set of energy symbols.
This ambitious program in systems ecology was summarized in Odum’s semipopular book, Environment, Power, and Society